Hospital affiliated research. Check out world rankings of Irish hospitals at webometrics.info

Sub-communities within this community

Recent Submissions

  • KAT6A Syndrome: genotype-phenotype correlation in 76 patients with pathogenic KAT6A variants.

    Kennedy, Joanna; Goudie, David; Blair, Edward; Chandler, Kate; Joss, Shelagh; McKay, Victoria; Green, Andrew; Armstrong, Ruth; Lees, Melissa; Kamien, Benjamin; et al. (2018-09-24)
    Purpose: Pathogenic variants in KAT6A have recently been identified as a cause of syndromic developmental delay. Within 2 years, the number of patients identified with pathogenic KAT6A variants has rapidly expanded and the full extent and variability of the clinical phenotype has not been reported. Methods: We obtained data for patients with KAT6A pathogenic variants through three sources: treating clinicians, an online family survey distributed through social media, and a literature review. Results: We identified 52 unreported cases, bringing the total number of published cases to 76. Our results expand the genotypic spectrum of pathogenic variants to include missense and splicing mutations. We functionally validated a pathogenic splice-site variant and identified a likely hotspot location for de novo missense variants. The majority of clinical features in KAT6A syndrome have highly variable penetrance. For core features such as intellectual disability, speech delay, microcephaly, cardiac anomalies, and gastrointestinal complications, genotype- phenotype correlations show that late-truncating pathogenic variants (exons 16-17) are significantly more prevalent. We highlight novel associations, including an increased risk of gastrointestinal obstruction. Conclusion: Our data expand the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum for individuals with genetic pathogenic variants in KAT6A and we outline appropriate clinical management.
  • Reproductive health outcomes in women with psoriatic arthritis.

    Murray, Kieran; Moore, Louise; McAuliffe, Fionnuala; Veale, Douglas J (2019-02-15)
  • Clinical and genetic landscape of treatment naive cervical cancer: Alterations in PIK3CA and in epigenetic modulators associated with sub-optimal outcome.

    Scholl, Suzy; Popovic, Marina; de la Rochefordiere, Anne; Girard, Elodie; Dureau, Sylvain; Mandic, Aljosa; Koprivsek, Katarina; Samet, Nina; Craina, Marius; Margan, Madalin; et al. (2019-04-02)
    Background: There is a lack of information as to which molecular processes, present at diagnosis, favor tumour escape from standard-of-care treatments in cervical cancer (CC). RAIDs consortium (www.raids-fp7.eu), conducted a prospectively monitored trial, [BioRAIDs (NCT02428842)] with the objectives to generate high quality samples and molecular assessments to stratify patient populations and to identify molecular patterns associated with poor outcome. Methods: Between 2013 and 2017, RAIDs collected a prospective CC sample and clinical dataset involving 419 participant patients from 18 centers in seven EU countries. Next Generation Sequencing has so far been carried out on a total of 182 samples from 377 evaluable (48%) patients, allowing to define dominant genetic alterations. Reverse phase protein expression arrays (RPPA) was applied to group patients into clusters. Activation of key genetic pathways and protein expression signatures were tested for associations with outcome. Findings: At a median follow up (FU) of 22 months, progression-free survival rates of this FIGO stage IB1-IV population, treated predominantly (87%) by chemoradiation, were65•4% [CI95%: 60•2-71.1]. Dominant oncogenic alterations were seen in PIK3CA (40%), while dominant suppressor gene alterations were seen in KMT2D (15%) and KMT2C (16%). Cumulative frequency of loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in any epigenetic modulator gene alteration was 47% and it was associated with PIK3CA gene alterations in 32%. Patients with tumours harboring alterations in both pathways had a significantly poorer PFS. A new finding was the detection of a high frequency of gains of TLR4 gene amplifications (10%), as well as amplifications, mutations, and non-frame-shift deletions of Androgen receptor (AR) gene in 7% of patients. Finally, RPPA protein expression analysis defined three expression clusters. Interpretation: Our data suggests that patient population may be stratified into four different treatment strategies based on molecular markers at the outset. FUND: European Union's Seventh Program grant agreement No 304810.
  • Influenza and associated co-infections in critically ill immunosuppressed patients.

    Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Lemiale, Virginie; Geoghegan, Pierce; McMahon, Mary AISLING; Pickkers, Peter; Soares, Marcio; Perner, Anders; Meyhoff, Tine Sylvest; Bukan, Ramin Brandt; Rello, Jordi; et al. (2019-05-02)
    Background It is unclear whether influenza infection and associated co-infection are associated with patient-important outcomes in critically ill immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure. Methods Preplanned secondary analysis of EFRAIM, a prospective cohort study of 68 hospitals in 16 countries. We included 1611 patients aged 18 years or older with non-AIDS-related immunocompromise, who were admitted to the ICU with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. The main exposure of interest was influenza infection status. The primary outcome of interest was all-cause hospital mortality, and secondary outcomes ICU length of stay (LOS) and 90-day mortality. Results Influenza infection status was categorized into four groups: patients with influenza alone (n = 95, 5.8%), patients with influenza plus pulmonary co-infection (n = 58, 3.6%), patients with non-influenza pulmonary infection (n = 820, 50.9%), and patients without pulmonary infection (n = 638, 39.6%). Influenza infection status was associated with a requirement for intubation and with LOS in ICU (P < 0.001). Patients with influenza plus co-infection had the highest rates of intubation and longest ICU LOS. On crude analysis, influenza infection status was associated with ICU mortality (P < 0.001) but not hospital mortality (P = 0.09). Patients with influenza plus co-infection and patients with non-influenza infection alone had similar ICU mortality (41% and 37% respectively) that was higher than patients with influenza alone or those without infection (33% and 26% respectively). A propensity score-matched analysis did not show a difference in hospital mortality attributable to influenza infection (OR = 1.01, 95%CI 0.90–1.13, P = 0.85). Age, severity scores, ARDS, and performance status were all associated with ICU, hospital, and 90-day mortality. Conclusions Category of infectious etiology of respiratory failure (influenza, non-influenza, influenza plus co-infection, and non-infectious) was associated with ICU but not hospital mortality. In a propensity score-matched analysis, influenza infection was not associated with the primary outcome of hospital mortality. Overall, influenza infection alone may not be an independent risk factor for hospital mortality in immunosuppressed patients.
  • Adipose tissue as a key player in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Ryan, Silke; Arnaud, Claire; Fitzpatrick, Susan F; Gaucher, Jonathan; Tamisier, Renaud; Pépin, Jean-Louis (2019-06-26)
    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a major health concern worldwide and adversely affects multiple organs and systems. OSA is associated with obesity in >60% of cases and is independently linked with the development of numerous comorbidities including hypertension, arrhythmia, stroke, coronary heart disease and metabolic dysfunction. The complex interaction between these conditions has a significant impact on patient care and mortality. The pathophysiology of cardiometabolic complications in OSA is still incompletely understood; however, the particular form of intermittent hypoxia (IH) observed in OSA, with repetitive short cycles of desaturation and re-oxygenation, probably plays a pivotal role. There is fast growing evidence that IH mediates some of its detrimental effects through adipose tissue inflammation and dysfunction. This article aims to summarise the effects of IH on adipose tissue in experimental models in a comprehensive way. Data from well-designed controlled trials are also reported with the final goal of proposing new avenues for improving phenotyping and personalised care in OSA.
  • Standards for the management of cancer-related pain across Europe-A position paper from the EFIC Task Force on Cancer Pain.

    Bennett, Michael I; Eisenberg, Elon; Ahmedzai, Sam H; Bhaskar, Arun; O'Brien, Tony; Mercadante, Sebastiano; Krčevski Škvarč, Nevenka; Vissers, Kris; Wirz, Stefan; Wells, Chris; et al. (2019-01-06)
  • A Technological Review of Wearable Cueing Devices Addressing Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease.

    Sweeney, Dean; Quinlan, Leo R; Browne, Patrick; Richardson, Margaret; Meskell, Pauline; ÓLaighin, Gearóid (2019-03-13)
    Freezing of gait is one of the most debilitating symptoms of Parkinson's disease and is an important contributor to falls, leading to it being a major cause of hospitalization and nursing home admissions. When the management of freezing episodes cannot be achieved through medication or surgery, non-pharmacological methods such as cueing have received attention in recent years. Novel cueing systems were developed over the last decade and have been evaluated predominantly in laboratory settings. However, to provide benefit to people with Parkinson's and improve their quality of life, these systems must have the potential to be used at home as a self-administer intervention. This paper aims to provide a technological review of the literature related to wearable cueing systems and it focuses on current auditory, visual and somatosensory cueing systems, which may provide a suitable intervention for use in home-based environments. The paper describes the technical operation and effectiveness of the different cueing systems in overcoming freezing of gait. The "What Works Clearinghouse (WWC)" tool was used to assess the quality of each study described. The paper findings should prove instructive for further researchers looking to enhance the effectiveness of future cueing systems.
  • Moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise is safe and favorably influences body composition in patients with quiescent Inflammatory Bowel Disease: a randomized controlled cross-over trial.

    Cronin, Owen; Barton, Wiley; Moran, Carthage; Sheehan, Donal; Whiston, Ronan; Nugent, Helena; McCarthy, Yvonne; Molloy, Catherine B; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D; et al. (2019-02-12)
    Improved physical fitness was demonstrated in the exercise group by increases in median estimated VO2max (Baseline: 43.41mls/kg/min; post-intervention: 46.01mls/kg/min; p = 0.03). Improvement in body composition was achieved by the intervention group (n = 13) with a median decrease of 2.1% body fat compared with a non-exercising group (n = 7) (0.1% increase; p = 0.022). Lean tissue mass increased by a median of 1.59 kg and fat mass decreased by a median of 1.52 kg in the exercising group. No patients experienced a deterioration in disease activity scores during the exercise intervention. No clinically significant alterations in the α- and β-diversity of gut microbiota and associated metabolic pathways were evident.
  • Thinking forward: promising but unproven ideas for future intensive care.

    Marini, John J; DeBacker, Daniel; Gattinoni, Luciano; Ince, Can; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Singer, Pierre; Singer, Mervyn; Westphal, Martin; Vincent, Jean-Louis (2019-06-14)
    Progress toward determining the true worth of ongoing practices or value of recent innovations can be glacially slow when we insist on following the conventional stepwise scientific pathway. Moreover, a widely accepted but flawed conceptual paradigm often proves difficult to challenge, modify or reject. Yet, most experienced clinicians, educators and clinical scientists privately entertain untested ideas about how care could or should be improved, even if the supporting evidence base is currently thin or non-existent. This symposium encouraged experts to share such intriguing but unproven concepts, each based upon what the speaker considered a logical but unproven rationale. Such free interchange invited dialog that pointed toward new or neglected lines of research needed to improve care of the critically ill. In this summary of those presentations, a brief background outlines the rationale for each novel and deliberately provocative unconfirmed idea endorsed by the presenter.
  • Effect of Glyceryl Trinitrate on Hemodynamics in Acute Stroke.

    Appleton, Jason P; Woodhouse, Lisa J; Bereczki, Daniel; Berge, Eivind; Christensen, Hanne K; Collins, Rónán; Gommans, John; Ntaios, George; Ozturk, Serefnur; Szatmari, Szabolcs; et al.
    Background and Purpose- Increased blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and their derivatives (variability, pulse pressure, rate-pressure product) are associated with poor clinical outcome in acute stroke. We assessed the effects of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) on hemodynamic parameters and these on outcome in participants in the ENOS trial (Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke). Methods- Four thousand and eleven patients with acute stroke and raised BP were randomized within 48 hours of onset to transdermal GTN or no GTN for 7 days. Peripheral hemodynamics were measured at baseline (3 measures) and daily (2 measures) during treatment. Between-visit BP variability over days 1 to 7 (as SD) was assessed in quintiles. Functional outcome was assessed as modified Rankin Scale and cognition as telephone mini-mental state examination at day 90. Analyses were adjusted for baseline prognostic variables. Data are mean difference or odds ratios with 95% CI. Results- Increased baseline BP (diastolic, variability), heart rate, and rate-pressure product were each associated with unfavorable functional outcome at day 90. Increased between-visit systolic BP variability was associated with an unfavourable shift in modified Rankin Scale (highest quintile adjusted odds ratio, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.37-1.99), worse cognitive scores (telephone mini-mental state examination: highest quintile adjusted mean difference, -2.03; 95% CI, -2.84 to -1.22), and increased odds of death at day 90 (highest quintile adjusted odds ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.12-2.19). GTN lowered BP and rate-pressure product and increased heart rate at day 1 and reduced between-visit systolic BP variability. Conclusions- Increased between-visit BP variability was associated with poor functional and cognitive outcomes and increased death 90 days after acute stroke. In addition to lowering BP and rate-pressure product, GTN reduced between-visit systolic BP variability. Agents that lower BP variability in acute stroke require further study.
  • 'HepCheck Dublin': an intensified hepatitis C screening programme in a homeless population demonstrates the need for alternative models of care.

    Lambert, John S; Murtagh, Ross; Menezes, Dee; O'Carroll, Austin; Murphy, Carol; Cullen, Walter; McHugh, Tina; Avramovic, Gordana; Tinago, Willard; Van Hout, Marie Claire (2019-02-07)
    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Prevalence of HCV in homeless populations ranges from 3.9 to 36.2%. The HepCheck study sought to investigate and establish the characterisation of HCV burden among individuals who attended an intensified screening programme for HCV in homeless services in Dublin, Ireland. Methods: The HepCheck study was conducted as part of a larger European wide initiative called HepCare Europe. The study consisted of three phases; 1) all subjects completed a short survey and were offered a rapid oral HCV test; 2) a convenience sample of HCV positive participants from phase 1 were selected to complete a survey on health and social risk factors and 3) subjects were tracked along the referral pathway to identify whether they were referred to a specialist clinic, attended the specialist clinic, were assessed for cirrhosis by transient elastography (Fibroscan) and were treated for HCV. Results: Five hundred ninety-seven individuals were offered HCV screening, 73% were male and 63% reported having had a previous HCV screening. We screened 538 (90%) of those offered screening, with 37% testing positive. Among those who tested positive, 112 (56%) were 'new positives' and 44% were 'known positives'. Undiagnosed HCV was prevalent in 19% of the study sample. Active past 30-day drug use was common, along with attendance for drug treatment. Unstable accommodation was the most common barrier to attending specialist appointments and accessing treatment. Depression and anxiety, dental problems and respiratory conditions were common reported health problems. Forty-six subjects were referred to specialised services and two subjects completed HCV treatment. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the current hospital-based model of care is inadequate in addressing the specific needs of a homeless population and emphasises the need for a community-based treatment approach. Findings are intended to inform HepCare Europe in their development of a community-based model of care in order to engage with homeless individuals with multiple co-morbidities including substance abuse, who are affected by or infected with HCV.
  • A novel multidrug-resistant PVL-negative CC1-MRSA-IV clone emerging in Ireland and Germany likely originated in South-Eastern Europe.

    Earls, Megan R; Shore, Anna C; Brennan, Gráinne I; Simbeck, Alexandra; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Vremerǎ, Teodora; Dorneanu, Olivia S; Slickers, Peter; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan; et al. (2019-01-21)
    This study investigated the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-negative CC1-MRSA-IV in Ireland and Germany. Ten CC1-MSSA and 139 CC1-MRSA isolates recovered in Ireland between 2004 and 2017 were investigated. These were compared to 21 German CC1-MRSA, 10 Romanian CC1-MSSA, five Romanian CC1-MRSA and two UAE CC1-MRSA, which were selected from an extensive global database, based on similar DNA microarray profiles to the Irish isolates. All isolates subsequently underwent whole-genome sequencing, core-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (cgSNP) analysis and enhanced SCCmec subtyping. Two PVL-negative clades (A and B1) were identified among four main clades. Clade A included 20 German isolates, 119 Irish isolates, and all Romanian MRSA and MSSA isolates, the latter of which differed from clade A MRSA by 47-130 cgSNPs. Eighty-six Irish clade A isolates formed a tight subclade (A1) exhibiting 0-49 pairwise cgSNPs, 80 of which harboured a 46 kb conjugative plasmid carrying both ileS2, encoding high-level mupirocin resistance, and qacA, encoding chlorhexidine resistance. The resistance genes aadE, aphA3 and sat were detected in all clade A MRSA and the majority (8/10) of clade A MSSA isolates. None of the clade A isolates harboured any enterotoxin genes other than seh, which is universally present in CC1. Clade B1 included the remaining German isolate, 17 Irish isolates and the two UAE isolates, all of which corresponded to the Western Australia MRSA-1 (WA MRSA-1) clone based on genotypic characteristics. MRSA within clades A and B1 differed by 188 cgSNPs and clade-specific SCCmec characteristics were identified, indicating independent acquisition of the SCCmec element. This study demonstrated the existence of a European PVL-negative CC1-MRSA-IV clone that is distinctly different from the well-defined PVL-negative CC1-MRSA-IV clone, WA MRSA-1. Furthermore, cgSNP analysis revealed that this newly defined clone may have originated in South-Eastern Europe, before spreading to both Ireland and Germany.
  • Single Core Genome Sequencing for Detection of both Sensu Lato and Relapsing Fever Borrelia Species.

    Lee, Sin Hang; Healy, John Eoin; Lambert, John S (2019-05-20)
    Lyme disease, initially described as Lyme arthritis, was reported before nucleic-acid based detection technologies were available. The most widely used diagnostic tests for Lyme disease are based on the serologic detection of antibodies produced against antigens derived from a single strain of Borrelia burgdorferi. The poor diagnostic accuracy of serological tests early in the infection process has been noted most recently in the 2018 Report to Congress issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Tick-Borne Disease Working Group. Clinical Lyme disease may be caused by a diversity of borreliae, including those classified as relapsing fever species, in the United States and in Europe. It is widely accepted that antibiotic treatment of Lyme disease is most successful during this critical early stage of infection. While genomic sequencing is recognized as an irrefutable direct detection method for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, development of a molecular diagnostic tool for all clinical forms of borreliosis is challenging because a "core genome" shared by all pathogenic borreliae has not yet been identified. After a diligent search of the GenBank database, we identified two highly conserved segments of DNA sequence among the borrelial 16S rRNA genes. We further developed a pair of Borrelia genus-specific PCR primers for amplification of a segment of borrelial 16S rRNA gene as a "core genome" to be used as the template for routine Sanger sequencing-based metagenomic direct detection test. This study presented examples of base-calling DNA sequencing electropherograms routinely generated in a clinical diagnostic laboratory on DNA extracts of human blood specimens and ticks collected from human skin bites and from the environment. Since some of the tick samples tested were collected in Ireland, borrelial species or strains not known to exist in the United States were also detected by analysis of this 16S rRNA "core genome". We recommend that hospital laboratories located in Lyme disease endemic areas begin to use a "core genome" sequencing test to routinely diagnose spirochetemia caused by various species of borreliae for timely management of patients at the early stage of infection.
  • The rationale for Janus kinase inhibitors for the treatment of spondyloarthritis.

    Veale, Douglas J; McGonagle, Dennis; McInnes, Iain B; Krueger, James G; Ritchlin, Christopher T; Elewaut, Dirk; Kanik, Keith S; Hendrikx, Thijs; Berstein, Gabriel; Hodge, Jennifer; et al.
    The pathogenesis of SpA is multifactorial and involves a range of immune cell types and cytokines, many of which utilize Janus kinase (JAK) pathways for signaling. In this review, we summarize the animal and pre-clinical data that have demonstrated the effects of JAK blockade on the underlying molecular mechanisms of SpA and provide a rationale for JAK inhibition for the treatment of SpA. We also review the available clinical trial data evaluating JAK inhibitors tofacitinib, baricitinib, peficitinib, filgotinib and upadacitinib in PsA, AS and related inflammatory diseases, which have demonstrated the efficacy of these agents across a range of SpA-associated disease manifestations. The available clinical trial data, supported by pre-clinical animal model studies demonstrate that JAK inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of SpA and may offer the potential for improvements in multiple articular and extra-articular disease manifestations of PsA and AS.
  • Enterovirus and parechovirus meningitis in infants younger than 90 days old in the UK and Republic of Ireland: a British Paediatric Surveillance Unit study.

    Kadambari, Seilesh; Braccio, Serena; Ribeiro, Sonia; Allen, David J; Pebody, Richard; Brown, David; Cunney, Robert; Sharland, Mike; Ladhani, Shamez (2018-12-08)
    Objectives: This study aimed to prospectively collect detailed clinical information for all enterovirus (EV) and human parechovirus (HPeV) meningitis cases in infants aged <90 days in the UK and Ireland. Participants, design and setting: Prospective, active national surveillance during July 2014 to July 2015 through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit. Reporting paediatricians completed questionnaires requesting information on clinical presentation, investigations, management and outcomes at hospital discharge and after 12 months. Main outcome measures: To describe the clinical burden of EV and HPeV meningitis in infants aged <90 days. Results: During the 13-month surveillance period, 703 cases (668 EV, incidence0.79/1,000 live- births; 35 HPeV, 0.04/1,000 live-births) were identified. The most common clinical presentations were fever (EV: 570/668(85%); HPeV: 28/35(80%)), irritability (EV: 441/668(66%); HPeV: 23/35(66%)) and reduced feeding (EV: 363/668(54%); HPeV 23/35(66%)). Features of circulatory shock were present in 27% (182/668) of EV and 43% (15/35) of HPeV cases. Overall, 11% (76/668) of EV and 23% (8/35) of HPeV cases required intensive care support. Nearly all cases (678/703, 96%) were confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) PCR, with 52% (309/600) having normal CSF white cell count for age. Two infants with EV meningitis died (2/668, 0.3%) and four survivors (4/666, 0.6%) had long-term complications at 12 months' follow-up. Infants with HPeV meningitis survived without sequelae. Overall 189 infants had a formal hearing test and none had sensorineural hearing loss. Conclusion: The incidence of laboratory-confirmed EV/HPeV meningitis in young infants is more than twice that for bacterial meningitis. Less than 1% will develop severe neurological complications or die of their infection. Further studies are required to formally assess long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae.
  • Patient involvement in the implementation of infection prevention and control guidelines and associated interventions: a scoping review.

    Fernandes Agreli, Heloise; Murphy, Michael; Creedon, Sile; Ni Bhuachalla, Cliodhna; O'brien, Deirdre; Gould, Dinah; Savage, Eileen; Barry, Fiona; Drennan, Jonathan; Smiddy, Maura P; et al. (2019-03-23)
    From an identified 2078 papers, 14 papers were included in this review. Our findings provide insights into the need for a fundamental change to IPC, from being solely the healthcare professionals (HCPs) responsibility to one that involves a collaborative relationship between HCPs and patients. This change should be underpinned by a clear understanding of patient roles, potential levels of patient involvement in IPC and strategies to overcome barriers to patient involvement focusing on the professional-patient relationship (eg, patient encouragement through multimodal educational strategies and efforts to disperse professional's power).
  • HepCare Europe-A service innovation project. HepCheck: Characteristics of the patient population with active infection as defined by HCV RNA.

    Avramovic, Gordana; Oprea, Cristiana; Surey, Julian; Story, Alistair; Macías, Juan; Cullen, Walter; Iglesias, Maria; Mc Hugh, Tina; Crowley, Des; Naughton, Anna Marie; et al. (2019-11-27)
    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a main cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and is consistently under-diagnosed. Community-based screening initiatives, such as HepCheck, have been identified as important components of HCV care. HepCheck focuses on screening and identifying HCV RNA-positive cases in high-risk populations and linking them to care as part of a larger European project to improve HCV care (HepCare). METHODS: HCV testing with a self-administered questionnaire was offered to 2822 individuals. RESULTS: There were 2079 patients screened. Overall, 397 (19%) of the total screened cohort were identified as having active HCV infections as measured by HCV RNA PCR. The patients were mostly male (84%), white (88%), and had a history of injecting drug use (IDU) (86%), homelessness (58%), and tattooing (42%). There were 136 new cases (7% of the total sample and 34% of identified active infections). Romania had the highest proportion of newly identified cases with 87%, then Ireland with 60%, and Spain with 43%; the UK had the lowest proportion of new cases at 10%. CONCLUSIONS: For those lost to follow-up, a major strategy is re-engagement. For those newly diagnosed, the 'seek and treat' approach is a key strategy. Thus, different priorities are defined for different countries.
  • Look-back Review Report

    Safety Incident Management Team (SIMT); South /South West Hospital Group (Health Service Executive (HSE), 2018-12-05)
    In September 2017 a major review of CT Scans, Ultrasounds and Chest X-Rays reported by an individual Consultant Radiologist commenced at University Hospital Kerry (UHK). This was prompted by the notification to hospital management of three Serious Reportable Events (SRE) in the category of Care Management Events where a diagnostic error was considered by the hospital's Safety Incident Management Team (SIMT) to have had a serious impact on patients through a delay in diagnosis, limiting treatment options available to them. The matter was escalated to the South/South West Hospital Group (S/SWHG) who recommended that a look-back review would be carried out. This was approved by the National Director of the Acute Hospital Division, HSE, on the 30th of August, 2017. A Group SIMT was then established, chaired by the Chief Operations Officer S/SWHG, to carry out the look-back review. Following the notification of a further Serious Incident (SI) the review was extended in October 2017 to include all images reported by the individual Consultant concerned. Therefore, the review set about auditing 46,234 images in order to identify if there was any missed pathology within the radiology reporting process; to identify if any further patients had been affected; to communicate with them in a timely and appropriate fashion, and ultimately to ensure that patients received appropriate care. The SIMT endeavoured at all times to treat patients with utmost sensitivity and honesty whilst at the same time minimising unnecessary anxiety or distress. Over the course of the look-back eleven patients were identified as having a delay in diagnosis which had an impact on their care. Four of the eleven patients have passed away over the course of the review period. The hospital and the HSE acknowledge that patients and families’ experiences were devastating for them and have had a profound and lasting effect on both the patients affected and their families. The South/South West Hospital Group, University Hospital Kerry and the Health Service Executive (HSE) would like to apologise sincerely and unreservedly to all patients and families harmed by delayed diagnoses.
  • DVD Versus Physiotherapist-Led Inhaler Education: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Khan, R; Yasin, F; O'Neill, S; Cahalane, E; O'Shea, R; Browne, B; Cournane, J; Rand, S; Shannon, H (2018-02-09)
    Correct technique with inhalers is vital for therapeutic effect. Efficacy of DVD inhaler instruction was investigated. Secondary aims were to examine feasibility of an inhaler technique outcome measure, and to compare knowledge and self-efficacy after DVD or individual education. This was a randomised controlled trial conducted in a regional hospital paediatric ward, involving new or existing paediatric inhaler users. Inhaler technique was assessed pre-education in existing inhaler users. Participants were then randomised to message equivalent education by DVD or individually with a physiotherapist. Inhaler technique, self-efficacy and knowledge were assessed immediately post- and three months after education. Twenty one participants received DVD or individual education. There were no significant differences between groups for technique, self-efficacy or knowledge at any time. The outcome measure was feasible for use in a research study. DVD education was equivalent to individual instruction to teach parents how to use inhalers with their child.

View more