• Impact of repeated four-monthly anthelmintic treatment on Plasmodium infection in preschool children: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial

      Kirwan, Patrick; Jackson, Andrew L; Asaolu, Samuel O; Molloy, Sile F; Abiona, Titilayo C; Bruce, Marian C; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa; O'Neill, Sandra M; Holland, Celia V (2010-09-21)
      Abstract Background Helminth infections can alter susceptibility to malaria. Studies need to determine whether or not deworming programs can impact on Plasmodium infections in preschool children. Methods A double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial was conducted to investigate the impact of anthelmintic treatment on Plasmodium infection in children aged 12-59 months. Children were randomly assigned to receive either albendazole or placebo every four months for 12 months with a follow-up at 14 months. Results 320 children (out of 1228, 26.1%) complied with all the follow-up assessments. Plasmodium prevalence and mean Plasmodium parasite density was significantly higher in the treatment group (44.9% and 2319 ± SE 511) compared to the placebo group (33.3% and 1471 ± 341) at baseline. The odds of having Plasmodium infection increased over time for children in both the placebo and treatment groups, however this increase was significantly slower for children in the treatment group (P = 0.002). By month 14, mean Plasmodium density had increased by 156% in the placebo group and 98% in the treatment group but the rate of change in Plasmodium density was not significantly different between the groups. The change from baseline in haemoglobin had a steeper increase among children in the treatment group when compared to the placebo group but this was not statistically significant. Conclusions Repeated four-monthly anthelminthic treatments for 14 months resulted in a significantly lower increase in the prevalence of Plasmodium infection in preschool children which coincided with a reduction in both the prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides infections. Trial Registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN44215995
    • Impact of repeated four-monthly anthelmintic treatment on Plasmodium infection in preschool children: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.

      Kirwan, Patrick; Jackson, Andrew L; Asaolu, Samuel O; Molloy, Sile F; Abiona, Titilayo C; Bruce, Marian C; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa; O' Neill, Sandra M; Holland, Celia V; Department of Zoology, University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland. kirwanpa@tcd.ie (2010)
      Helminth infections can alter susceptibility to malaria. Studies need to determine whether or not deworming programs can impact on Plasmodium infections in preschool children.
    • Impaired Visual Motor Coordination in Obese Adults.

      Gaul, David; Mat, Arimin; O'Shea, Donal; Issartel, Johann (Journal of Obesity, 2016-09)
      Objective. To investigate whether obesity alters the sensory motor integration process and movement outcome during a visual rhythmic coordination task. Methods. 88 participants (44 obese and 44 matched control) sat on a chair equipped with a wrist pendulum oscillating in the sagittal plane. The task was to swing the pendulum in synchrony with a moving visual stimulus displayed on a screen. Results. Obese participants demonstrated significantly (p < 0.01) higher values for continuous relative phase (CRP) indicating poorer level of coordination, increased movement variability (p < 0.05), and a larger amplitude (p < 0.05) than their healthy weight counterparts. Conclusion. These results highlight the existence of visual sensory integration deficiencies for obese participants. The obese group have greater difficulty in synchronizing their movement with a visual stimulus. Considering that visual motor coordination is an essential component of many activities of daily living, any impairment could significantly affect quality of life.
    • Implementation of a clinical pathway for emergency department out-patient management of deep vein thrombosis.

      Kidney, R; Hosny, G; Canning, M B; Kong, V; Barton, D; Wakai, A; St Vincent's University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4. whatsupdocrk@yahoo.co.uk (2010-09)
      There is good evidence demonstrating that outpatient management of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is feasible and safe. However, few emergency departments in Ireland have implemented care pathways for outpatient management of DVT. The aim of this study was to examine the safety and efficacy of implementing an Emergency Department (ED)- care pathway for outpatient management of patients with DVT. A retrospective observational study of this care pathway introduced at our institution was performed. The primary outcome measure was the number of hospital admissions avoided by using the care pathway. Two hundred and eighty-four patients presenting to the ED with suspected lower limb DVT, were managed using the care pathway over a 6 month period. Forty-nine patients (17%) had a DVT diagnosed. Thirty-nine patients (81%) were suitable for outpatient DVT management. Ten patients (19%) were admitted to hospital. At 3 months there were no reported cases of the following complications: missed DVT, pulmonary embolism or death.
    • Implementation of a regional quality improvement collaborative to improve care of people living with opioid use disorder in a Canadian setting.

      Beamish, Laura; Sagorin, Zach; Stanley, Cole; English, Krista; Garelnabi, Rana; Cousineau, Danielle; Barrios, Rolando; Klimas, Jan (2019-09-14)
    • Implementing the Dublin Declaration on partnership to Fight HIV/AIDS in Europe and Central Asia: 2010 progress report

      European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 2010)
    • The implications of regional and national demographic projections for future GMS costs in Ireland through to 2026.

      Conway, Aisling; Kenneally, Martin; Woods, Noel; Thummel, Andreas; Ryan, Marie (2014-10-21)
      As the health services in Ireland have become more resource-constrained, pressure has increased to reduce public spending on community drug schemes such as General Medical Services (GMS) drug prescribing and to understand current and future trends in prescribing. The GMS scheme covers approximately 37% of the Irish population in 2011 and entitles them, inter alia, to free prescription drugs and appliances. This paper projects the effects of future changes in population, coverage, claims rates and average claims cost on GMS costs in Ireland.
    • Importance of breakfast for children

      Hunking, Penny (Nursing in General Practice, 2014-09)
    • The importance of healthcare planning

      Murphy, JFA (Irish Medical Journal, 2015-05)
    • Improved functional overview of protein complexes using inferred epistatic relationships

      Ryan, Colm; Greene, Derek; Guenole, Aude; van Attikum, Haico; Krogan, Nevan J; Cunningham, Padraig; Cagney, Gerard (2011-05-23)
      Abstract Background Epistatic Miniarray Profiling(E-MAP) quantifies the net effect on growth rate of disrupting pairs of genes, often producing phenotypes that may be more (negative epistasis) or less (positive epistasis) severe than the phenotype predicted based on single gene disruptions. Epistatic interactions are important for understanding cell biology because they define relationships between individual genes, and between sets of genes involved in biochemical pathways and protein complexes. Each E-MAP screen quantifies the interactions between a logically selected subset of genes (e.g. genes whose products share a common function). Interactions that occur between genes involved in different cellular processes are not as frequently measured, yet these interactions are important for providing an overview of cellular organization. Results We introduce a method for combining overlapping E-MAP screens and inferring new interactions between them. We use this method to infer with high confidence 2,240 new strongly epistatic interactions and 34,469 weakly epistatic or neutral interactions. We show that accuracy of the predicted interactions approaches that of replicate experiments and that, like measured interactions, they are enriched for features such as shared biochemical pathways and knockout phenotypes. We constructed an expanded epistasis map for yeast cell protein complexes and show that our new interactions increase the evidence for previously proposed inter-complex connections, and predict many new links. We validated a number of these in the laboratory, including new interactions linking the SWR-C chromatin modifying complex and the nuclear transport apparatus. Conclusion Overall, our data support a modular model of yeast cell protein network organization and show how prediction methods can considerably extend the information that can be extracted from overlapping E-MAP screens.
    • Improving hip fracture care in Ireland: a preliminary report of the Irish Hip Fracture Database

      Ellanti, Prasad; Cushen, Breda; Galbraith, Adam; Brent, Louise; Hurson, Conor; Ahern, Emer (Journal of Osteoporosis, 2014-11-19)
    • Improving knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about acute coronary syndrome through an individualized educational intervention: A randomized controlled trial.

      O'Brien, Frances; McKee, Gabrielle; Mooney, Mary; O'Donnell, Sharon; Moser, Debra; School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address: obrienfr@tcd.ie. (2014-08)
      To test the effectiveness of an individualized educational intervention on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
    • Improving referrals to fracture clinic from the paediatric emergency department--an intervention.

      Craven, J; Martin, C; Callender, O (Irish Medical Journal (IMJ), 2012-05)
    • Imputation by the mean score should be avoided when validating a Patient Reported Outcomes questionnaire by a Rasch model in presence of informative missing data

      Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Conroy, Ronan; Sebille, Veronique (2011-07-14)
      Abstract Background Nowadays, more and more clinical scales consisting in responses given by the patients to some items (Patient Reported Outcomes - PRO), are validated with models based on Item Response Theory, and more specifically, with a Rasch model. In the validation sample, presence of missing data is frequent. The aim of this paper is to compare sixteen methods for handling the missing data (mainly based on simple imputation) in the context of psychometric validation of PRO by a Rasch model. The main indexes used for validation by a Rasch model are compared. Methods A simulation study was performed allowing to consider several cases, notably the possibility for the missing values to be informative or not and the rate of missing data. Results Several imputations methods produce bias on psychometrical indexes (generally, the imputation methods artificially improve the psychometric qualities of the scale). In particular, this is the case with the method based on the Personal Mean Score (PMS) which is the most commonly used imputation method in practice. Conclusions Several imputation methods should be avoided, in particular PMS imputation. From a general point of view, it is important to use an imputation method that considers both the ability of the patient (measured for example by his/her score), and the difficulty of the item (measured for example by its rate of favourable responses). Another recommendation is to always consider the addition of a random process in the imputation method, because such a process allows reducing the bias. Last, the analysis realized without imputation of the missing data (available case analyses) is an interesting alternative to the simple imputation in this context.
    • In Arabidopsis thaliana codon volatility scores reflect GC3 composition rather than selective pressure

      O'Connell, Mary J; Doyle, Aisling M; Juenger, Thomas E; Donoghue, Mark TA; Keshavaiah, Channa; Tuteja, Reetu; Spillane, Charles (2012-07-17)
      Abstract Background Synonymous codon usage bias has typically been correlated with, and attributed to translational efficiency. However, there are other pressures on genomic sequence composition that can affect codon usage patterns such as mutational biases. This study provides an analysis of the codon usage patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana in relation to gene expression levels, codon volatility, mutational biases and selective pressures. Results We have performed synonymous codon usage and codon volatility analyses for all genes in the A. thaliana genome. In contrast to reports for species from other kingdoms, we find that neither codon usage nor volatility are correlated with selection pressure (as measured by dN/dS), nor with gene expression levels on a genome wide level. Our results show that codon volatility and usage are not synonymous, rather that they are correlated with the abundance of G and C at the third codon position (GC3). Conclusions Our results indicate that while the A. thaliana genome shows evidence for synonymous codon usage bias, this is not related to the expression levels of its constituent genes. Neither codon volatility nor codon usage are correlated with expression levels or selective pressures but, because they are directly related to the composition of G and C at the third codon position, they are the result of mutational bias. Therefore, in A. thaliana codon volatility and usage do not result from selection for translation efficiency or protein functional shift as measured by positive selection.
    • In pursuit of clinical training

      Byrne, Michael; O'Shea, Grace; Health Service Executive (HSE) (Irish Psychologist, 2010-02)
    • In silico analysis highlights the frequency and diversity of type 1 lantibiotic gene clusters in genome sequenced bacteria

      Marsh, Alan J; O'Sullivan, Orla; Ross, R PAUL; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin (2010-11-30)
      Abstract Background Lantibiotics are lanthionine-containing, post-translationally modified antimicrobial peptides. These peptides have significant, but largely untapped, potential as preservatives and chemotherapeutic agents. Type 1 lantibiotics are those in which lanthionine residues are introduced into the structural peptide (LanA) through the activity of separate lanthionine dehydratase (LanB) and lanthionine synthetase (LanC) enzymes. Here we take advantage of the conserved nature of LanC enzymes to devise an in silico approach to identify potential lantibiotic-encoding gene clusters in genome sequenced bacteria. Results In total 49 novel type 1 lantibiotic clusters were identified which unexpectedly were associated with species, genera and even phyla of bacteria which have not previously been associated with lantibiotic production. Conclusions Multiple type 1 lantibiotic gene clusters were identified at a frequency that suggests that these antimicrobials are much more widespread than previously thought. These clusters represent a rich repository which can yield a large number of valuable novel antimicrobials and biosynthetic enzymes.