• High prevalence of dementia among community dwelling older adults in receipt of state funded home care packages: implications for health care planning

      O’Brien, I.; Smuts, K.; Fan, C. W.; O’Sullivan, M.; Warters, A. (Cambridge Journals, 2017-12-22)
      Objectives The majority of people living with dementia in Ireland reside in their own homes, some supported by formal or informal home care. This audit aimed to estimate the prevalence of dementia and suspected cognitive impairment (CI) among older adults, 65+ years, in receipt of formal home care (domiciliary care) in a defined health service area in North Dublin. A secondary objective of the audit was to explore factors associated with dementia or CI in this cohort. Methods A cross-sectional audit was conducted on all clients aged 65+ years actively receiving publicly funded home care packages (HCPs) during May 2016 in Healthcare Service Executive CHO9 Dublin North Central. A total of 935 urban community dwelling older adults were included in the study [mean age 83.7 ( s.d. 7.4) years and 65% female]. Basic socio-demographic and health data were extracted from common summary assessment reports. Service users were categorised as having (a) dementia if a diagnosis of dementia or cognitive decline which impacts on independent living, was documented by a health professional or (b) suspected CI where a validated cognitive screening tool was applied and the score was indicative of mild CI. Results Overall, the estimated prevalence of dementia and suspected CI was 37.1% and 8.7%, respectively. Factors significantly associated with dementia and suspected CI were higher dependency and home care hours, communication difficulty and being non-self-caring ( p <0.001). Notably, half (51.6%) of those with either dementia or suspected CI group lived alone. Conclusions Our findings suggest a high prevalence dementia among HCP users, highlighting a need and opportunity for dementia-specific approaches to support older people in their homes.
    • High saturated-fat and low-fibre intake: a comparative analysis of nutrient intake in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes.

      Breen, C; Ryan, M; McNulty, B; Gibney, M J; Canavan, R; O'Shea, D; Diabetes and Endocrine Units, St Columcille's and St Vincent's University Hospitals, Dublin, UK. (2014-02)
      The aim of dietary modification, as a cornerstone of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) management, is to optimise metabolic control and overall health. This study describes food and nutrient intake in a sample of adults with T2DM, and compares this to recommendations, and to intake in age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and social-class matched adults without T2DM.
    • High-level inhibition of mitochondrial complexes III and IV is required to increase glutamate release from the nerve terminal

      Kilbride, Sean M; Gluchowska, Sonia A; Telford, Jayne E; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Davey, Gavin P (2011-07-26)
      Abstract Background The activities of mitochondrial complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, EC and complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase EC are reduced by 30-70% in Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease, respectively, and are associated with excitotoxic cell death in these disorders. In this study, we investigated the control that complexes III and complex IV exert on glutamate release from the isolated nerve terminal. Results Inhibition of complex III activity by 60-90% was necessary for a major increase in the rate of Ca2+-independent glutamate release to occur from isolated nerve terminals (synaptosomes) depolarized with 4-aminopyridine or KCl. Similarly, an 85-90% inhibition of complex IV activity was required before a major increase in the rate of Ca2+-independent glutamate release from depolarized synaptosomes was observed. Inhibition of complex III and IV activities by ~ 60% and above was required before rates of glutamate efflux from polarized synaptosomes were increased. Conclusions These results suggest that nerve terminal mitochondria possess high reserves of complex III and IV activity and that high inhibition thresholds must be reached before excess glutamate is released from the nerve terminal. The implications of the results in the context of the relationship between electron transport chain enzyme deficiencies and excitotoxicity in neurodegenerative disorders are discussed.
    • High-throughput bacterial SNP typing identifies distinct clusters of Salmonella Typhi causing typhoid in Nepalese children

      Holt, Kathryn E; Baker, Stephen; Dongol, Sabina; Basnyat, Buddha; Adhikari, Neelam; Thorson, Stephen; Pulickal, Anoop S; Song, Yajun; Parkhill, Julian; Farrar, Jeremy J; et al. (2010-05-31)
      Abstract Background Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) causes typhoid fever, which remains an important public health issue in many developing countries. Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal, is an area of high incidence and the pediatric population appears to be at high risk of exposure and infection. Methods We recently defined the population structure of S. Typhi, using new sequencing technologies to identify nearly 2,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that can be used as unequivocal phylogenetic markers. Here we have used the GoldenGate (Illumina) platform to simultaneously type 1,500 of these SNPs in 62 S. Typhi isolates causing severe typhoid in children admitted to Patan Hospital in Kathmandu. Results Eight distinct S. Typhi haplotypes were identified during the 20-month study period, with 68% of isolates belonging to a subclone of the previously defined H58 S. Typhi. This subclone was closely associated with resistance to nalidixic acid, with all isolates from this group demonstrating a resistant phenotype and harbouring the same resistance-associated SNP in GyrA (Phe83). A secondary clone, comprising 19% of isolates, was observed only during the second half of the study. Conclusions Our data demonstrate the utility of SNP typing for monitoring bacterial populations over a defined period in a single endemic setting. We provide evidence for genotype introduction and define a nalidixic acid resistant subclone of S. Typhi, which appears to be the dominant cause of severe pediatric typhoid in Kathmandu during the study period.
    • High-throughput proteomics detection of novel splice isoforms in human platelets.

      Power, Karen A; McRedmond, James P; de Stefani, Andreas; Gallagher, William M; Gaora, Peadar O; UCD Conway Institute and UCD School of Biomolecular & Biomedical Sciences, UCD Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland. (2009)
      Alternative splicing (AS) is an intrinsic regulatory mechanism of all metazoans. Recent findings suggest that 100% of multiexonic human genes give rise to splice isoforms. AS can be specific to tissue type, environment or developmentally regulated. Splice variants have also been implicated in various diseases including cancer. Detection of these variants will enhance our understanding of the complexity of the human genome and provide disease-specific and prognostic biomarkers. We adopted a proteomics approach to identify exon skip events - the most common form of AS. We constructed a database harboring the peptide sequences derived from all hypothetical exon skip junctions in the human genome. Searching tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data against the database allows the detection of exon skip events, directly at the protein level. Here we describe the application of this approach to human platelets, including the mRNA-based verification of novel splice isoforms of ITGA2, NPEPPS and FH. This methodology is applicable to all new or existing MS/MS datasets.
    • Highlighting within the cardiothoracic area the input of palliative care in existential distress situations

      Von Hornstein, Freiherr; Health Service Executive (HSE) (PABST Science Publishers, 2013)
    • Hippocampal glutamate-glutamine (Glx) in adults with Down syndrome: a preliminary study using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS)

      Tan, Giles MY; Beacher, Felix; Daly, Eileen; Horder, Jamie; Prasher, Verinder; Hanney, Maria-Luisa; Morris, Robin; Lovestone, Simon; Murphy, Kieran C; Simmons, Andrew; et al. (2014-11-27)
      Abstract Background Down syndrome (DS), or trisomy 21, is one of the most common autosomal mutations. People with DS have intellectual disability (ID) and are at significantly increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The biological associates of both ID and AD in DS are poorly understood, but glutamate has been proposed to play a key role. In non-DS populations, glutamate is essential to learning and memory and glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity has been implicated in AD. However, the concentration of hippocampal glutamate in DS individuals with and without dementia has not previously been directly investigated. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) can be used to measure in vivo the concentrations of glutamate-glutamine (Glx). The objective of the current study was to examine the hippocampal Glx concentration in non-demented DS (DS-) and demented DS (DS+) individuals. Methods We examined 46 adults with DS (35 without dementia and 11 with dementia) and 39 healthy controls (HC) using 1H MRS and measured their hippocampal Glx concentrations. Results There was no significant difference in the hippocampal Glx concentration between DS+ and DS-, or between either of the DS groups and the healthy controls. Also, within DS, there was no significant correlation between hippocampal Glx concentration and measures of overall cognitive ability. Last, a sample size calculation based on the effect sizes from this study showed that it would have required 6,257 participants to provide 80% power to detect a significant difference between the groups which would indicate that there is a very low likelihood of a type 2 error accounting for the findings in this study. Conclusions Individuals with DS do not have clinically detectable differences in hippocampal Glx concentration. Other pathophysiological processes likely account for ID and AD in people with DS.
    • HIV testing and treatment in the antenatal care setting.

      Coulter-Smith, S; Lambert, J S; Butler, K; Brennan, M; Cafferkey, M; The Rotunda Hospital, Parnell Sq, Dublin 1. (2010-01)
      Routine linked HIV antenatal screening, with "opt-out", was introduced at the Rotunda in January 1998. This paper reviews the screening and subsequent pregnancy management and outcome in HIV positive women from 1998 to 2006. During this time 225 women (280 pregnancies) were HIV positive and 194 women subsequently delivered at the Rotunda, representing 233 liveborn infants. Overall anti-HIV prevalence was 0.42%, increasing from 0.06% in 1998 to 0.57% in 2006. Of 233 livebirths, 111 (48%) were delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD). HIV treatment was started pre-pregnancy in 14 (6%) pregnancies and antenatally in 208 (90%). The vertical transmission rate in mothers receiving >4 weeks of treatment was 0%. We conclude that routine antenatal HIV screening is effective and significantly benefits the health of mother and child.
    • HIV-1 subtype distribution and its demographic determinants in newly diagnosed patients in Europe suggest highly compartmentalized epidemics

      Abecasis, Ana B; Wensing, Annemarie MJ; Paraskevis, Dimitris; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Theys, Kristof; Van de Vijver, David AMC; Albert, Jan; Asjö, Birgitta; Balotta, Claudia; Beshkov, Danail; et al. (2013-01-14)
      Abstract Background Understanding HIV-1 subtype distribution and epidemiology can assist preventive measures and clinical decisions. Sequence variation may affect antiviral drug resistance development, disease progression, evolutionary rates and transmission routes. Results We investigated the subtype distribution of HIV-1 in Europe and Israel in a representative sample of patients diagnosed between 2002 and 2005 and related it to the demographic data available. 2793 PRO-RT sequences were subtyped either with the REGA Subtyping tool or by a manual procedure that included phylogenetic tree and recombination analysis. The most prevalent subtypes/CRFs in our dataset were subtype B (66.1%), followed by sub-subtype A1 (6.9%), subtype C (6.8%) and CRF02_AG (4.7%). Substantial differences in the proportion of new diagnoses with distinct subtypes were found between European countries: the lowest proportion of subtype B was found in Israel (27.9%) and Portugal (39.2%), while the highest was observed in Poland (96.2%) and Slovenia (93.6%). Other subtypes were significantly more diagnosed in immigrant populations. Subtype B was significantly more diagnosed in men than in women and in MSM > IDUs > heterosexuals. Furthermore, the subtype distribution according to continent of origin of the patients suggests they acquired their infection there or in Europe from compatriots. Conclusions The association of subtype with demographic parameters suggests highly compartmentalized epidemics, determined by social and behavioural characteristics of the patients.
    • A holistic assessment of bariatric surgical outcomes in a Northern Irish cohort

      Neff , KJ; Prener, C; Chuah, LL; O’Donnell, K; Godsland, IF; Miras, AD; le Roux, CW (Irish Medical Journal (IMJ), 2014-01)
    • Holt Oram syndrome: a registry-based study in Europe

      Barisic, Ingeborg; Boban, Ljubica; Greenlees, Ruth; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana; Calzolari, Elisa; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Bergman, Jorieke EH; Braz, Paula; et al. (2014-10-25)
      Abstract Background Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by upper limb anomalies and congenital heart defects. We present epidemiological and clinical aspects of HOS patients using data from EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) registries. Methods The study was based on data collected during 1990–2011 by 34 registries. The registries are population-based and use multiple sources of information to collect data on all types of birth using standardized definitions, methodology and coding. Diagnostic criteria for inclusion in the study were the presence of radial ray abnormalities and congenital heart disease (CHD), or the presence of either radial ray anomaly or CHD, with family history of HOS. Results A total of 73 cases of HOS were identified, including 11 (15.1%) TOPFA and 62 (84.9%) LB. Out of 73 HOS cases, 30.8% (20/65) were suspected prenatally, 55.4% (36/65) at birth, 10.7% (7/65) in the first week of life, and 3.1% (2/65) in the first year of life. The prenatal detection rate was 39.2% (20/51), with no significant change over the study period. In 55% (11/20) of prenatally detected cases, parents decided to terminate pregnancy. Thumb anomalies were reported in all cases. Agenesis/hypoplasia of radius was present in 49.2% (30/61), ulnar aplasia/hypoplasia in 24.6% (15/61) and humerus hypoplasia/phocomelia in 42.6% (26/61) of patients. Congenital heart defects (CHD) were recorded in 78.7% (48/61) of patients. Isolated septal defects were present in 54.2 (26/48), while 25% (12/48) of patients had complex/severe CHD. The mean prevalence of HOS diagnosed prenatally or in the early years of life in European registries was 0.7 per 100,000 births or 1:135,615 births. Conclusions HOS is a rare genetic condition showing regional variation in its prevalence. It is often missed prenatally, in spite of the existence of major structural anomalies. When discovered, parents in 45% (9/20) of cases opt for the continuation of pregnancy. Although a quarter of patients have severe CHD, the overall first week survival is very good, which is important information for counselling purposes.
    • Home visits: why do rates vary so much?

      Stewart, P; Stewart, R; Donegal Specialist Training Programme in General Practice, Education Centre, St. Conals, Letterkenny, Co Donegal. pspstewart62@gmail.com (Irish Medical Journal (IMJ), 2012-03)
      Data including information on patient age, gender, who initiated the visit and call classification was collected during office hours from 12 G.P. rural teaching practices with a combined GMS patient population of 24,720, over a 2 month period. There were a total of 603 home visits, giving an annual visiting rate of 143/1000. Visiting rates varied between practices from 45 to 305/1000 per year. When high visiting practices (>210/1000/year) were compared to low visiting rate practices (>90/1000/year), patients tended to be older (79.7 v. 74.5 years) and calls were 12 times more likely to be doctor initiated (16.6% v. 1.4%) or classified as routine( 50.7% v. 44.9%). The variation between practices was related in part to patient age but appears largely due to differences in doctor home visiting behaviour. There are no recent figures on home visiting in Ireland.
    • Homelessness and mental health: a report for homelessness and mental health action.

      Cleary, Anne; Prizeman, Geraldine; Homelessness and Mental Health Action Group; University College Dublin. Social Science Research Centre. (University College Dublin. Social Science Research Centre., 1998-05)
    • Homeobox transcription factor muscle segment homeobox 2 (Msx2) correlates with good prognosis in breast cancer patients and induces apoptosis in vitro.

      Lanigan, Fiona; Gremel, Gabriela; Hughes, Rowena; Brennan, Donal J; Martin, Finian; Jirström, Karin; Gallagher, William M; University College Dublin School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, UCD Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. (2010)
      The homeobox-containing transcription factor muscle segment homeobox 2 (Msx2) plays an important role in mammary gland development. However, the clinical implications of Msx2 expression in breast cancer are unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate the potential clinical value of Msx2 as a breast cancer biomarker and to clarify its functional role in vitro.
    • Hospital-based stroke care in Ireland: results from one regional register.

      Fan, C W; McDonnell, R; Johnson, Z; O'Keeffe, S; Crowe, M J; Department of Medicine for Elderly, St. Columcille's Hospital, Dublin. (2000-01)
      Most patients with acute stroke are admitted to hospital. If stroke services in this country are to be improved, we need accurate and reliable information about the types of stroke patients being admitted, their present management and outcome.
    • Hospitalisations due to falls in older persons.

      Carey, D; Laffoy, Marie; Department of Public Health, HSE Eastern Region, Dr Steevens' Hospital, Dublin 8. deirdre.carey1@mailf.hse.ie (2005-06)
      This paper describes hospitalisations due to falls among people aged 65 years and over resident in the Eastern Region of Ireland. Of the 2,029 hospitalisations recorded for 2002, 78% were female and 68% were aged 75 years and over. Fractures accounted for 1,697 or 84% of cases with nearly half of them (841) sustained to the hip. Females were more likely to have a limb fracture whereas males were more likely to have a head injury. The total inpatient costs of the 2,029 hospitalisations were estimated at 10.6 million euros. Hip fractures were the costliest injuries as they accounted for 7.4 million euros (70%) of inpatient costs. There are also substantial additional costs implications for hip fractures as they constituted the majority (56%) of cases transferred to nursing/convalescent homes or long-stay health facilities. In keeping with an ageing population, the problem of injuries in older people is likely to increase over time and as falls are the dominant cause of those injuries, all acute and long-stay health facilities need to develop and implement fall prevention strategies for older people.
    • Housing in Ireland: performance and policy

      The National Economic and Social Council (The National Economic and Social Council, 2004-11)
    • Housing Requirements and Population Change, 1981 — 1991

      National Economic and Social Council (National Economic and Social Council, 1983-05)
    • How can we investigate the role of topiramate in the treatment of cocaine use disorder more thoroughly?

      Klimas, Jan; Wood, Evan; Werb, Daniel; St Paul's Hospital; University of British Columbia; Vancouver Canada; Urban Health Research Initiative; BC Centre For Excellence in Hiv/Aids; Vancouver Canada; Urban Health Research Initiative; BC Centre For Excellence in Hiv/Aids; Vancouver Canada (2016)
    • How do patients with inflammatory bowel disease want their biological therapy administered?

      Allen, Patrick B; Lindsay, Hannah; Tham, Tony C K; Division of Gastroenterology, Ulster Hospital, Dundonald, Belfast, N Ireland BT16 1RH, UK. paddyallen8@hotmail.com (2010)
      BACKGROUND: Infliximab is usually administered by two monthly intravenous (iv) infusions, therefore requiring visits to hospital. Adalimumab is administered by self subcutaneous (sc) injections every other week. Both of these anti-TNF drugs appear to be equally efficacious in the treatment of Crohn's Disease and therefore the decision regarding which drug to choose will depend to some extent on patient choice, which may be based on the mode of administration.The aims of this study were to compare preferences in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients for two currently available anti-TNF agents and the reasons for their choices. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to IBD patients who had attended the Gastroenterology service (Ulster Hospital, Dundonald, Belfast, N. Ireland. UK) between January 2007 and December 2007. The patients were asked in a hypothetical situation if the following administering methods of anti-TNF drugs (intravenous or subcutaneous) were available, which drug route of administration would they choose. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-five patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were issued questionnaires, of these 78 questionnaires were returned (62 percent response). The mean age of respondent was 44 years. Of the total number of respondents, 33 patients (42 percent) preferred infliximab and 19 patients (24 percent) preferred adalimumab (p = 0.07). Twenty-six patients (33 percent) did not indicate a preference for either biological therapy and were not included in the final analysis. The commonest reason cited for those who chose infliximab (iv) was: "I do not like the idea of self-injecting," (67 percent). For those patients who preferred adalimumab (sc) the commonest reason cited was: "I prefer the convenience of injecting at home," (79 percent). Of those patients who had previously been treated with an anti-TNF therapy (n = 10, all infliximab) six patients stated that they would prefer infliximab if given the choice in the future (p = 0.75). CONCLUSIONS: There was a trend towards patient preference for infliximab (iv) treatment as opposed to adalimumab (sc) in patients with IBD. This difference may be due to the frequency of administration, mode of administration or differing 'times in the market-place', as infliximab had been approved for a longer period of time in Crohn's disease. Further studies are required in IBD patients to investigate whether patient choice will affect compliance, patient satisfaction and efficacy of treatment with anti-TNF therapies.